Mclean Hospital

About BPD

Learn More About Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline personality disorder is a complex mental illness marked by unstable moods, behaviors, and relationships. People with the condition may struggle with self-image problems, feelings of self-doubt, intense fear of abandonment, and low self-worth.

Individuals with BPD often have trouble controlling their emotional reactions, which can lead to self-harm and suicidal behaviors. It is common for people with this disorder to have high rates of co-occurring disorders, such as substance use disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders.

Mental health experts agree that the name “borderline personality disorder” can be misleading; however, a more accurate term does not yet exist. The good news is that when BPD is accurately diagnosed, treatment can be successful and individuals can go on to lead meaningful and productive lives.

BPD can be provisionally diagnosed in adolescents when symptoms persist for more than one year. While by nature the personality of adolescents is still developing, the diagnosis of BPD can be made with great care and on the basis of a thorough history and evaluation of an adolescent’s thinking style, emotional coping patterns, and interpersonal mode of functioning.

Patient speaks with clinician in front of window
Individuals with BPD often have trouble controlling their emotional reactions, which can lead to self-harm and suicidal behaviors

Treatment focuses on behavioral therapies or psychotherapies and medications, as appropriate to the specifics of the individual’s symptoms.

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was created as a treatment model for those with BPD. The method emphasizes the development of four skill sets: mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance. Mindfulness practice involves increasing self-awareness by learning to focus on one’s experience of the present moment. A combination of cognitive behavioral techniques and mindfulness principles are employed to help people gain better control over their impulsive self-destructive behavior and to allow for a different way of managing intense feelings.

DBT was initially developed to treat suicidality in adults with BPD. However, it now is being used effectively in adolescents with similar self-harm behaviors as well as in other co-occurring psychiatric illnesses such as depression and anxiety. DBT has been clinically tested for its effectiveness in adolescents and adults.

It’s estimated that 1.6% of the adult U.S. population has BPD, but it may be as high as 5.9%. Nearly 75% of people diagnosed with the condition are women, but recent research suggests that men may be almost as frequently affected. In the past, men with BPD were often misdiagnosed with PTSD or depression.

Mentalization-based treatment (MBT) is a manualized, evidence-based treatment that focuses on helping people to differentiate and separate their own thoughts and feelings from those around them. Individuals with BPD often find it difficult to recognize the effect their behavior has on other people, which can lead to interpersonal problems and impulsive behavior. Mentalization refers to the ability to focus and reflect on mental states (e.g., beliefs, intentions, feelings, and thoughts) in oneself and in others. MBT seeks to develop and strengthen the individual’s capacity for mentalization, with the goal of improving interpersonal relationships and affect regulation.

Currently, there are no medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat borderline personality disorder. However, many people with BPD are treated with medications, in addition to psychotherapy, that can be helpful in managing specific symptoms such as anxiety or depression.

General psychiatric management (GPM) for patients with BPD is an evidence-based treatment developed by John G. Gunderson, MD. GPM was designed to be an outpatient intervention that could be easily delivered by community mental health professionals. GPM includes education for patients and their families, a persistent focus on the patient’s life outside of therapy, and a focus on big goals (e.g., stable partnerships and vocations). The treatment is often delivered as once weekly individual therapy and combined with other treatments such as medication management, family interventions, and group therapy.

Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) is a manualized, evidence-based treatment. TFP focuses on the patient’s confused and contradictory sense of identity, which is associated with problems with interpersonal relationships, self-esteem, and mood regulation. TFP helps patients learn to verbalize what they are feeling, rather than acting impulsively on emotions. The ultimate goal of this treatment is to create more stable and realistic experiences of self and others, resulting in increased functioning and satisfaction with interpersonal relationships.


McLean Hospital has been at the forefront of BPD research. Our researchers have provided critical insight into the causes and treatment of the disease and today continue to look for more knowledge on the disorder in order to find improved treatment methods.

John G. Gunderson, MD, was a pioneer in borderline personality disorder research. His seminal studies on BPD helped transform the diagnosis from a psychoanalytic construct into a scientifically proven and internationally recognized disorder and earned him recognition as the “father” of this disorder. He also developed the evidence-based therapy general psychiatric management (GPM), which he and fellow McLean clinicians teach throughout the country.

Treatment at McLean
Though once thought to be a disorder only found in adults, experts find emerging borderline personality disorder traits in teens as well

Lois W. Choi-Kain, MEd, MD, is the medical and program director of the Gunderson Residence and director of the Gunderson Personality Disorders Institute at McLean Hospital. Her areas of specialization include attachment, personality disorders, and psychotherapy, along with an integration of evidence-based treatments for BPD. In addition to her clinical work, she actively conducts research and publishes papers on BPD while also providing training for clinicians in general psychiatric management (GPM) and mentalization-based treatment (MBT) approaches.

Mary C. Zanarini, EdD, is the director of the Laboratory for the Study of Adult Development, which has been a part of many landmark discoveries in the field of BPD research. Her group of clinician-scientists was integral to the validation of BPD as a psychiatric disorder, and their work has also led to a now widely held theory of the causes of BPD. Dr. Zanarini has created numerous scales for assessing BPD in individuals and is a lead investigator in a number of longitudinal studies collecting research data on BPD over time.

McLean: A Leader in Borderline Personality Disorder Treatment

Let us help you or a loved one. Call us today at 877.372.3068 and we’ll help you find the treatment option that’s right for you.


Want More Info?

Looking for even more information about borderline personality disorder? You may find these resources helpful.

Interesting Articles, Videos, and More

Learn more about borderline personality disorder and what you can do if you or a loved one is displaying signs of BPD.

Helpful Links

These organizations may also have useful information:

Behavioral Tech: Training for Mental Health Professionals
Behavioral Tech provides robust training for clinicians, especially in dialectical behavior therapy and other treatments for borderline personality disorder. Behavioral Tech also offers resources for providers and consumers in an effort to bring ever-better treatments to those in need. The organization supports advocacy efforts and BPD research.

Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center
The mission of the Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center (BPDRC) is to promote BPD education and connect those affected by BPD to established resources for treatment and support. The BPDRC is affiliated with the Personality Disorders Institute at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Westchester Division, and their efforts are overseen by innovators in the research and treatment of personality disorders. Among many resources, the BPDRC maintains a nationwide database of clinicians, agencies, and facilities that focus on treating BPD and co-occurring disorders.

National Education Alliance for Borderline Personality Disorder
This group provides education while raising public awareness and understanding, in an attempt to reduce stigma and promote research and enhance the quality of life of those affected by borderline personality disorder. They work with Congress to enhance the quality of life for those individuals affected by this serious but treatable mental illness. NEABPD’s many resources include BPD Family Guidelines, The Family Connections Program, and Family Education Workshop videos.

New England Personality Disorder Association
NEPDA’s mission is to promote education, support, and advocacy in the field of personality disorders, with a concentration on borderline personality disorder (BPD). NEPDA sponsors workshops, conferences, and small group meetings for family members, friends and other loved ones, consumers of mental health services, professionals, and the community at large in order to improve awareness of personality disorders and reduce the stigma that is often associated with them.

Personality Disorder Awareness Network (PDAN)
A not-for-profit organization dedicated to increasing public awareness of personality disorders, alleviating the impact of personality disorders on families, and preventing the development of personality disorders in children.

Treatment and Research Advances Association for Borderline Personality Disorder
The TARA for Borderline Personality Disorder’s mission is to foster education and research in the field of personality disorders, specifically but not exclusively, borderline personality disorder. They support and encourage educational programs and endeavors targeting mental health professionals, consumers of mental health services, families, and communities in order to reduce stigma and increase awareness, to disseminate available information on etiology and treatment, and to advocate for accomplishments of these goals.

Books About BPD

Book cover - Good Psychiatric Management and Dialectical Behavior TherapyGood Psychiatric Management and Dialectical Behavior Therapy: A Clinician’s Guide to Integration and Stepped Care
edited by Anne K.I. Sonley, JD, MD, FRCPC, and Lois W. Choi-Kain, MEd, MD
(American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2020)

Applications of Good Psychiatric Management for Borderline Personality DisorderApplications of Good Psychiatric Management for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Practical Guide
edited by Lois W. Choi-Kain, MEd, MD, and John G. Gunderson, MD
(American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2019)

BPD A Case-Based ApproachBorderline Personality Disorder: A Case-Based Approach
edited by Brian Palmer, MD, and Brandon Unruh, MD
(Springer, 2018)

Beyond BorderlineBeyond Borderline: True Stories of Recovery From Borderline Personality Disorder
by John G. Gunderson, MD, Perry D. Hoffman, PhD
(New Harbinger Publications, 2016)

Borderline Personality and Mood DisordersBorderline Personality and Mood Disorders: Comorbidity and Controversy
edited by Lois W. Choi-Kain, MEd, MD, and John G. Gunderson, MD
(Springer, 2015)

Coping with BPDCoping with BPD: DBT and CBT Skills to Soothe the Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder
by Blaise Aguirre, MD, and Gillian Galen, PsyD
(New Harbinger, 2015)

Handbook of Good Psychiatric Management

Handbook of Good Psychiatric Management (GPM) for Borderline Patients
by John G. Gunderson, MD, with Paul S. Links, MD, FRCPC
(American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2014)

Mindfulness for Borderline Personality DisorderMindfulness for Borderline Personality Disorder: Relieve Your Suffering Using the Core Skill of Dialectical Behavior Therapy
by Blaise Aguirre, MD, and Gillian Galen, PsyD
(New Harbinger, 2013)

Borderline Personality Disorder in AdolescentsBorderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents: a Complete Guide to Understanding and Coping When Your Adolescent Has BPD
by Blaise Aguirre, MD
(Fair Winds Press, 2007)

Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding and Treating Borderline Personality Disorder: A Guide for Professionals and Families
by John G. Gunderson, MD, and Perry D. Hoffman, PhD
(American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2005)

Indentifying and Understanding the Narcissistic PersonalityIdentifying and Understanding the Narcissistic Personality
by Elsa F. Ronningstam
(Oxford University Press, 2005)

Borderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder
by Mary C. Zanarini, ed.
(Taylor & Francis, 2005)

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